Thursday, April 4, 2013

CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

MPT 1293 : CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

Week 7

Multimedia use in interface implementation for telematic-based learning

Design a interface for a courseware is an extremely critical. Screen design must have a good graphic design, user-friendliness and appropriateness to the learning content. To have more interaction with the user, multimedia elements is integrate to such as text, graphic, sound, animation and video. There are three factor that should be implement in interface which is screen development, interaction providing and navigation organisation. Nowadays, the interface design was eliminating the need for written instructions. The designer replace the instructions to icon or good screen design when planning a user interface.

To design a good interface, all the screen should have the same elements or the same layout at the same location. Besides that, a well interface design also need to have enough space for the content and the most important is the interface should have a clear navigation for the user so they would not feel lost when using courseware.

The creativity use colour to highlight the selection of the user will give a navigate to user that which content there are viewing. By included extra guidance such as interactive maps will show the level and sub-level of the learning material structure. It also allow users to change location by referring to the map and clicking on the area they wish to visit.

There are some factor will effect the users to visit the courseware. One of the factor is the courseware included too much dynamic media. If a interface have heavy laden with animation and video, it will slow down the smoothness when users using the courseware.

Wednesday, April 3, 2013

CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

MPT 1293 : CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

Week 6

This week we are learn about visual design. Visual design also called presentation design or interface design. Presentation design or interface design is the way that how we manage our interface by using graphic, text or other elements and present to other people. We also learn about how to design the layout so the user can navigated to the page that they need to visit. We need to plan what the theme or colours is suitable for the courseware content in our courseware. Different layout or picture can show that what is our general content and who is our target user. 

Below had show that the example of presentation design that the layout is organize to present the navigation to the content in a courseware. Besides that, the design also show that is a education courseware because it have some module.

CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

MPT 1293 : CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

Week 5

What is interaction Design?

Interaction Design is "about shaping digital things for people's use". Alternately defined as "the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services. Like many other design fields interaction design also has an interest in form but its main focus is on behavior. What clearly marks interaction design as a design field as opposed to a science or engineering field is that it is synthesis and imagining things as they might be, more so than focusing on how things are.

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

MPT 1293 : CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

Week 4

What is information Design???

Information "is the result of processing, manipulating and organizing data in a way that adds to the knowledge of the person receiving it“.
"is the identifying of a problem and the intellectual creative effort of an originator, manifesting itself in drawings or plans which include schemes and specifications".
Information design "is the defining, planning, and shaping of the contents of a message and the environments in which it is presented, with the intention to satisfy the information needs of the intended recipients.

CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

MPT 1293 : CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

Week 3

Multimedia Project Management

To develop a project, we must have some professional in certain job. There are some specialist :
1) Project Manager
2) Multimedia Designer
3) Writer
4) Video Specialist
5) Audio Specialist
6) Multimedia Programmer
7) Producer for the web
8) Computer Programmers

There are the responsible for each specialist:
The project manager is responsible for:

  • The overall development, implementation, and day-to-day operations of the project.
  •  The design and management of a project.
  •  Understanding the strengths and limitations of hardware and software.
  •   Ensuring people skills and organizational skills.
  •   Conveying information between the team and the client.
Multimedia designer - This team consists of:

  •   Graphics designers, illustrators, animators, and image processing specialists who deal with visuals, thereby making the project appealing and aesthetic.
  •   Instructional designers, who make sure that the subject matter is presented clearly for the target audience.
  •   Interface designers, who devise the navigational pathways and content maps.
  •   Information designers, who structure content, determine user pathways and feedback, and select presentation media.
An interface designer is responsible for:

  •   Creating a software device that organizes content, allows users to access or modify content, and presents that content on the screen.
  •   Building a user-friendly interface.
A multimedia writer is responsible for:

  •   Creating characters, actions, point of view, and interactivity.
  •   Writing proposals and test screens.
  •   Scripting voice-overs and actors' narrations.
A video specialist needs to understand:

  •   The delivery of video files on CD, DVD, or the Web.
  •   How to shoot quality video.
  •   How to transfer the video footage to a computer.
  •   How to edit the footage down to a final product using digital nonlinear editing system (NLE).
An audio specialist is responsible for:

  •   Locating and selecting suitable music talent.
  •   Scheduling recording sessions.
  •   Digitizing and editing recorded material into computer files.
Multimedia programmer, also called a software engineer:

  •   Integrates all the multimedia elements into a seamless project, using authoring systems or programming language.
  •   Writes codes for the display of multimedia elements, and to control various peripheral devices.
  •   Manages timings, transitions, and record keeping.
Multimedia producer for the Web:

  •   Web site producers put together a coordinated set of pages for the Web.
  •   They also co-ordinate updates and changes.

There are three phase in multimedia development

Tuesday, March 26, 2013

CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

MPT 1293 : CD-ROM Based Multimedia Development

Week 2

This week we are learn about multimedia development process. As we know, there are some model we can use when we are develop our project.

1) ADDIE Model

The five phases of ADDIE are as follows: 
a) Analysis
During analysis, the designer identifies the learning problem, the goals and objectives, the audience’s needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics.  Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project.

b) Design
A systematic process of specifying learning objectives.  Detailed storyboards and prototypes are often made, and the look and feel, graphic design, user-interface and content is determined here.

c) Development
The actual creation (production) of the content and learning materials based on the Design phase.

d) Implementation
During implementation, the plan is put into action and a procedure for training the learner and teacher is developed.  Materials are delivered or distributed to the student group. After delivery, the effectiveness of the training materials is evaluated.

e) Evaluation
This phase consists of (1) formative and (2) summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users.  Revisions are made as necessary.

2) Waterfall Model
a) Requirement Analysis and Definition
All possible requirements of the system to be developed are captured in this phase. Requirements are a set of functions and constraints that the end user (who will be using the system) expects from the system. The requirements are gathered from the end user at the start of the software development phase. These requirements are analyzed for their validity, and the possibility of incorporating the requirements in the system to be developed is also studied. Finally, a requirement specification document is created which serves the purpose of guideline for the next phase of the model.

b) System and Software Design
Before starting the actual coding phase, it is highly important to understand the requirements of the end user and also have an idea of how should the end product looks like. The requirement specifications from the first phase are studied in this phase and a system design is prepared. System design helps in specifying hardware and system requirements and also helps in defining the overall system architecture. The system design specifications serve as an input for the next phase of the model.

c) Implementation and Unit Testing
On receiving system design documents, the work is divided in modules/units and actual coding is started. The system is first developed in small programs called units, which are integrated in the next phase. Each unit is developed and tested for its functionality; this is referred to as unit testing. Unit testing mainly verifies if the modules/units meet their specifications.

d) Integration and System Testing
As specified above, the system is first divided into units which are developed and tested for their functions. These units are integrated into a complete system during integration phase and tested to check if all modules/units coordinate with each other, and the system as a whole behaves as per the specifications. After successfully testing the software, it is delivered to the customer.

e) Operations & Maintenance
This phase of the model is virtually a never-ending phase. Generally, problems with the system developed (which are not found during the development life cycle) come up after its practical use starts, so the issues related to the system are solved after deployment of the system. Not all the problems come into picture directly but they arise from time to time and need to be solved; hence this process is referred to as maintenance.

3) Hannafin & Peck Model

a) Needs Assess
The purpose of needs assessment is to define clearly the specifications of a project. During this phase, the designer develops an understanding of the student for whom the program is to be developed, the environment in which the program will be use, the constrain within which the program will be developed, the goals and objectives the program is to achieve, and the assessment item that will be used to determine the extent to which objective have been met. The designer identifies the skills and knowledge is to acquire during the lesson, as well as those the student must possess prior to beginning the lesson.

b) Design
This model emphasizes the important of evaluation and revision. This model is linear in nature and requires completion of a particular phase before moving on to the next. It still adapt the website hierarchy design procedure. In the website design procedure. The following information on lesson procedure, clarity, efficiency and design of a lesson for the computer from was also given:
  1. Instructions must be clear and unambiguous.
  2. Instructions must be consistently presented throughout.
  3. Basic design of the lesson must be sensible and user-friendly.
  4. The lesson activities must be easy to follow.
  5. The information presented (test, graphics, animation, and sound) must be readily interpreted.
  6. Lessons should avoid unnecessary and distracting information.
  7. The placement/design/color of instructions should be consequent throughout the lesson
c) Develop/ Implement
This phase convert the lesson from paper to the point at which it is actually used by students in the target environment. Activities during this phase include flowcharting, authoring and/or programming, Testing and debugging; documenting lesson procedures, formative evaluation, summative evaluation and revision the computer program is produced during this phase. The final product is a CAI lesson in the form of a computer program or set of programs that accomplishes the prescribed goals and objectives within the constraints identified during needs assessment.

d) Evaluation and Revision
Evaluation encompasses more then simply comparing obtained with expected student learning outcomes. Evaluation requires that factors related to attitudes, learning environment, curriculum priorities, and several other concerns are consider carefully before effectiveness can be concluded. Revision is a potential part of every aspect of the systems model. Revision in system-based approaches is ongoing, occurring at every level of the systems process.

Tuesday, March 19, 2013




Today i learn about CAI (Computer Assisted Instruction). There are 5 type of CAI which are:
2. Drills and Practice
3. Instructional games
4. Simulations
5. Problem Solving


•Tutorial software presents concepts or skills and then gives students the opportunity to practice them. Drill and practice software does not include a teaching component.
•Tutorials may be linear (students must go from p. 1 to p. 2 and so on) or non-linear (where they can branch off in one of several directions based on interest or need). Older software is more likely to be linear in nature.
•Tutorials are often very interactive. Students do not just passively sit and read computer screens. Tutorials, like drill and practice software, capitalize on individualized instruction and adjust the pace and feedback based on the students’ progress.
•Students who are absent or who need remediation can often benefit from using a computerized tutorial, provided one is available that covers what was missed.

Drill and Practice 
-Drill and practice software is generally used the same way that worksheets or flash cards are used in classrooms. It provides repeated exposure to facts or information, often in a question or game-type format.
-Drill and practice software was the most prevalent type of computer application for many years, since teachers were not quite sure how else computers could be used. Drill and practice software also fit nicely into a behavioral approach to teaching and learning since it measured student performance.
- Drill and practice software deals primarily with lower-order thinking skills.
-Drill and practice applications do not utilize the full power of computers. However, many drill and practice software titles are very good at what they do. The computer does not get tired of providing students with the practice and feedback they need. Most drill and practice programs also have a tracking device so that students (and teachers) are aware of their progress. In addition, many of the drill and practice programs have sounds and other motivating characteristics that encourage students. Students can progress at their own rate while using the software, another advantage.

Problem Solving 
-Problem solving software allows learners to see the results of their reactions to various events. Learners manipulate variables, and feedback is provided based on these manipulations.
-Problem solving software does not necessarily utilize realistic scenarios. For example, in the Carmen SanDiego series, the student flies around the world getting clues to try to track down a criminal. The process is contrived, although students develop problem solving skills and learn geography at the same time.
-There is a lot of power to using problem solving applications in the classroom, provided they match the curriculum. It is sometimes otherwise difficult to provide feedback based on individual choices students without the computer.

-A simulation is a representation or model of a real event, object, or phenomenon where learners can see the results of their actions. Sometimes it is not practical or feasible to do the real thing, so a simulation is used to provide experiences that otherwise would be denied. The difference between simulation software and problem solving software is that simulation software deals with realistic situations.
-This is a very powerful application of computers and the educational community can capitalize on this type of software. Students are given the power to manipulate aspects of models or situations. They see the results of their decisions immediately.
-Simulation and problem solving software address higher-order thinking skills.
-One element to be aware of when using simulation and problem solving software is that sometimes tests do not reflect what students learn through their involvement with these packages. As we start to use software that addresses higher-order thinking skills, we also need to consider alternative forms of assessment that can help us to better evaluate what students know and understand.

Instructional games 
-provide students a means to practice previously learned material or
gain new information. 
-But unlike drills, games are competitive by design, pitting the
student against the computer, another player, or time. Instructional games are difficult to
design, and all too often, even those which are professionally designed turn out not to be
fun and become another piece of unused software. 
-Instructional games come in many varieties such as adventure, arcade, board, card or gambling, combat, logic, role-play, psychomotor, TV quiz, and word games. Like drills, these can be adapted to any subject
that requires repeated practice.